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情态动词用法总结

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情态动词用法总结 本文关键词:情态,动词,用法

情态动词用法总结 本文简介:情态动词用法总结一.分类情态动词有四类:①只做情态动词:must,can(could),may(might),②可做情态动词又可做实义动词:need,dare③可做情态动词又可做助动词:shall(should),will(would),oughtto④具有情态动词特征:have(had,has)t

情态动词用法总结 本文内容:

情态动词用法总结

一.分类

情态动词有四类:

①只做情态动词:must,can(could),may(might),②可做情态动词又可做实义动词:need,dare

③可做情态动词又可做助动词:shall(should),will(would),ought

to

④具有情态动词特征:have(had,has)

to,used

to

⑤情态动词表猜测

二.位置

情态动词有一定的词义,但并不完整,必须与动词原形一起构成谓语。

I

can

see

you.

Come

here.

我能看见你,过来吧。

He

must

have

been

away.

他一定走了。

What

can

I

do

for

you?

我能帮你吗?

How

dare

you

treat

us

like

that!

你怎能那样对待我们!

三.特点

情态动词无人称和数的变化,情态动词后面跟的动词需用原形,否定式构成是在情态动词后面加

“not“。

个别情态动词有现在式和过去式两种形式,过去式用来表达更加客气,委婉的语气,时态性不强,可用于过去,现在或将来。情态动词属非及物动词,故没有被动语态。

He

could

be

here

soon.

他很快就来。

We

can

t

carry

the

heavy

box.

我们搬不动那箱子。

I

m

sorry

I

can

t

help

you.

对不起,我帮不上你。

基本助动词与情态助动词最主要的区别之一是,基本助动词本身没有词义,而情态助动词则有自己的词义,能表示说话人对有关动作或状态的看法,或表示主观设想:

What

have

you

been

doing

since?

(构成完成进行体,本身无词义)

I

am

afraid

I

must

be

going.

(一定要)

You

may

have

read

some

account

of

the

matter.

(或许已经)

除此之外,情态助动词还有如下词法和句法特征:

1)

除ought和used以外,其他情态动词后面只能接不带to的不定式。如果我们把ought

to和used

to看做是固定词组的话,那么,所有情态动词无一例外地只能接不带to的不定式:

We

used

to

grow

beautiful

roses.

I

asked

if

he

would

come

and

repair

my

television

set.

2)

情态助动词在限定动词词组总是位居第一:

They

need

not

have

been

punished

so

severely.

3)

情态助动词用于第三人称单数现在时的时候,没有词形变化,即其词尾无-s形式:

She

dare

not

say

what

she

thinks.

4)

情态动词没有非限定形式,即没有不定式和分词形式,也没有相应的动名词:

Still,she

needn

t

have

run

away.

5)

情态助动词的“时”的形式并不是时间区别的主要标志。在不少场合,情态助动词的现在时和过去时形式都可以表示现在、过去或将来时间:

Would

you

mind

very

much

if

I

ask

you

to

do

something?

She

told

him

he

ought

not

to

have

done

it.

6)

情态助动词之间是相互排斥的,即在一个限定动词词组中只能出现一个情态助动词,但有时却可以与have和be基本助动词连用:

You

should

have

washed

the

wound.

Well,you

shouldn

t

be

reading

a

novel.

四.用法

首先它是动词,而且不同于行为动词,行为动词表示的是可以通过行为来表达的动作(如写,读,跑),而情态动词只是表达的一种想法(如能,也许,敢)。

用法是:情态动词+行为动词原形

例句:I

can

read

this

sentence

in

English.

我能用英语读这句话。

情态动词是一种本身有一定的词义,表示说话人的情绪,态度或语气的动词,但不能单独作谓语,只能和其他动词原形构成谓语。

We

can

be

there

on

time

tomorrow.我们明天能按时去那儿。

May

I

have

your

name?

我能知道你的名字吗?

Shall

we

begin

now?我们现在就开始吗?

You

must

obey

the

school

rules.你必须遵守校规。

情态动词数量不多,但用途广泛,主要有下列:

can

(could),may

(might),must,need,ought

to,dare

(dared),shall

(should),will

(would),have

(to),had

better.

情态动词还有一个很重要的用法,即情态动词表推测——

情态动词表推测的用法小结

(一)情态动词表推测的三种句式

1.在肯定句中一般用must

(一定),may(可能),might

/

could(也许,或许)。

(1)He

must/may/might

know

the

answer

to

this

question?

他一定/可能/也许知道这个问题的答案。

(2)It

is

cold

in

the

room.

They

must

have

turned

off

the

heating.

屋里很冷,他们肯定把暖气关了。

2.否定句中用can’t

/

couldn’t(不可能),may

not/might

not(可能不)。

(1)It

can’t/couldn’t

be

the

headmaster.

He

has

gone

to

America.

这不可能是校长,他去美国了。

(2)He

may

not/might

not

know

the

scientist.

他也许不认识那位科学家。

3.疑问句中用can/could

(能……?)。

(1)Could

he

have

finished

the

task?

他可能把任务完成了吗?

(2)Can

he

be

at

home

now?

他现在能在家吗?

注:以上三种句式中情态动词的语气按程度都是依次递减的。Might,could并非may,can的过去式,而表示语气较为委婉或可能性较小。

(二)情态动词表推测的三种时态

1.对将来情况的推测,用“情态动词

+

动词原形”。

(1)She

must

/

may

/

might

/

could

arrive

before

5.

5:00前她一定/可能/也许到。

(2)She

must/may/might/could

walk

miles

and

miles

among

the

hills

without

meeting

anyone.

她一定/可能/也许会在山里一连走好几英里而遇不到一个人。

2.对现在或一般情况的推测,用“情态动词

+

be”,“情态动词

+be

doing”或“情态动词

+

动词原形”。

(1)He

must

/

may

/

might

/

could

be

listening

to

the

radio

now.

他一定/可能/也许正在听收音机。

(2)He

can’t

(

couldn’t

)

/

may

(

might

)

not

be

at

home

at

this

time.

这个时候他不可能/可能不在家。

(3)Mr.

Bush

is

on

time

for

everything

.How

can

(

could

)

he

be

late

for

the

opening

ceremony

?

布什先生一向准时,这次开幕式他怎么可能迟到呢?

3.对过去情况的推测,用“情态动词

+

have

+过去分词”。

(1)It

must

/

may

/

might

/

could

have

rained

last

night

.The

ground

is

wet.

地湿了,昨晚肯定/可能/也许下雨了。

(2)The

door

was

locked.

He

can

(

could

)

not

/

may

(

might

)

not

have

been

at

home

.

门锁着,他不可能/可能不在家。

(3)Can

/

Could

he

have

gotten

the

book?

难道他找到书了吗?

注:情态动词

should

/ought

to表推测时,意为“想必会,理应……”但与“have

+过去分词”连用时,则又可构成虚拟语气意为“本应该做某事却没做”。例如:

(4)It’s

seven

o’clock.

Jack

should/ought

to

be

here

at

any

moment.

现在七点钟了,杰克理应随时到达。(推测)

(5)She

should

/

ought

to

have

attended

your

birthday

party,but

she

had

to

look

after

her

mother

in

hospital.

(虚拟)

她本该出席你的生日晚会的,可是她得在医院照顾她妈妈。

(6)Tom

should

not

/ought

not

to

have

told

me

your

secret,but

he

meant

no

harm.

(虚拟)

汤姆本不该告诉我你的秘密,可是他并无恶意。

五.功能

助动词(auxiliary)主要有两类:基本助动词(primary

auxiliary)和情态助动词(modal

auxiliary)。基本助动词有三个:do,have和be;情态助动词基本的有十四个:may,might;

can,could;

will,would;

shall,should;

must,need,dare,used

to,ought

to.had

better

上述两类助动词的共同特征是,在协助主动词构成限定动词词组时,具有作用词的功能:

1)

构成否定式:

He

didn

t

go

and

neither

did

she.

The

meeting

might

not

start

until

5

o

clock.

2)

构成疑问式或附加疑问式:

Must

you

leave

right

now?

You

have

been

learning

French

for

5

years,haven

t

you?

3)

构成修辞倒装:

Nowhere

can

he

obtain

any

information

about

his

sister.

Hardly

had

he

arrived

when

she

started

complaining.

4)

代替限定动词词组:

A:

Who

can

solve

this

crossword

puzzle?

B:

Tom

can.

A:

Shall

I

write

to

him?

B:

Yes,do.

can和could的用法

1.

表示能力或客观可能性,还可以表示请求和允许。如:

Can

you

finish

this

work

tonight?

Man

can

not

live

without

air.

Can

I

go

now?

Yes,you

can.

注意:①could也可表示请求,语气委婉,主要用于疑问句,不可用于肯定句,答语应用can(即could不能用于现在时态的简略答语中)。如:

Could

I

come

to

see

you

tomorrow?

Yes,you

can.

(否定答语可用No,I

m

afraid

not.)

②can表示能力时,还可用be

able

to代替。如:

I

ll

not

be

able

to

come

this

afternoon.

2.

表示惊异、怀疑、不相信的态度。(主要用在否定句、疑问句或惊叹句中)

Can

this

be

true?

How

can

you

be

so

careless!

This

can

not

be

done

by

him.

3.

“can(could)

+

have

+

过去分词”的疑问或否定形式表示对过去发生的行为怀疑或不肯定。如:

He

can

not

have

been

to

that

town.

Can

he

have

got

the

book?

4.

用在疑问句及否定句中,表示惊讶,不相信等.

5.

can

not```too/enough表示“无论怎样``````也不过分“,“越``````越好“6.can

可以表示体力活脑力方面的能力,能够,能,会

Can

you

finish

the

work

in

such

a

short

time

?

7.

can

表示许可、允许

在疑问句中表示要求,在否定句中表示不许,此时可以和may通用。

may和might的用法

1.

表示许可。

表示请求、允许时,might比may的语气更委婉一些,否定回答时(口语中常用)

no,you

can

t

.

or,yes,please

用mustn

t表示“不可以”、“禁止”、“阻止”之意(具有强烈禁止的意思)如:

You

may

drive

the

car.

Might

I

use

your

pen?

No,you

mustn

t.

用May

I

.

征询对方许可在文体上比较正式,在口气上比较客气。在日常口语中,用Can

I

.

征询对方意见在现代口语中更为常见。

2.

用于祈使句中表示祝愿。如:

May

you

succeed!

3.

表示推测、可能(疑问句不能用于此意)。

He

may

be

very

busy

now.

4.

“may(might)

+

have

+

过去分词”表示对过去发生的行为的推测。如:

He

may

not

have

finished

the

work.

must和have

to的用法

1.

表示必须、必要。(must表示主观多一些而have

to则表示客观多一些)如:

You

must

come

in

time.

回答must引出的问句时,如果是否定的回答,不能用mustn

t,而要用needn

t或don

t

have

to。

Must

we

hand

in

our

exercise

books

today?

Yes,you

must.

(No,you

don’t

have

to.)

2.

“must

be

+

表语”的结构表示推测,它的否定或疑问式用can代替must。

This

must

be

your

pen.

3.

“must

+

have

+

过去分词”的结构常用在肯定句中,表示对过去发生的行为的推测。它的否定或疑问式用can代替must。

He

must

have

been

to

Shanghai.

4.

have

to的含义与must相似,两者往往可以互换使用,但have

to有各种形式,随have的变化而定。must与have

to有下列几点不同:

must表示的是说话人的主观看法,而have

to则往往强调客观需要。如:

The

play

is

not

interesting.

I

really

must

go

now.

I

had

to

work

when

I

was

your

age.

must一般只表现在,have则有更多的时态形式。

二者的否定意义不大相同。如:

You

mustn

t

go.

你可不要去。

You

don

t

have

to

go.

你不必去。

询问对方的意愿时应用must。如:

Must

I

clean

all

the

room?

注意:have

to也可拼做have

got

to。

5.

表示一种与说话人

愿望相反、不耐烦的感情色彩,偏偏、非要。

Why

must

you

always

bother

me

?

篇2:初中情态动词总结

初中情态动词总结 本文关键词:情态,动词,初中

初中情态动词总结 本文简介:西安戴氏高考中考学校临潼总校初三英语公开课讲义向老师中考考点之——情态动词★初中语法口诀名代冠数介形副动词考试经常出时态变换和语态情态非谓都要用主谓一致和倒装各种句式脑中装★初中阶段需要掌握的情态动词can(could)“能,会”/疑问句中表“征求意见”,过去式could比can更委婉may(mig

初中情态动词总结 本文内容:

西安戴氏高考中考学校临潼总校

初三英语

公开课讲义

向老师

中考考点之——情态动词

★初中语法口诀

名代冠数介形副

动词考试经常出

时态变换和语态

情态非谓都要用

主谓一致和倒装

各种句式脑中装

★初中阶段需要掌握的情态动词

can

(could)

“能,会”/

疑问句中表“征求意见”,过去式could比can更委婉

may

(might)

“可能,可以”/

表示推测时不可用于疑问句

will(would)

“将,会”

must

“必须、应该、一定(只用于肯定句)”

have

to

“客观上

不得不做”

need

“需要”/

也可以做动词

need

to

do

had

better

“最好”(+do/

not

do

sth)

should

“应该”

★情态动词——对谓语动词增加感情色彩,表达说话人对事物的态度和看法。在情态动词的考试中,应该特别注意两点:(1)情态动词后面跟动词原形;(2)情态动词没有人称变化。

陕西中考命题归纳

年份

题型

分值

考点

备注

2011

单项选择

1

情态动词can后跟动词原形

30题

2012

短文填空

1

情态动词could表能力

66题

2013

完型填空

1

情态动词can表

40题

高频考点

情态动词的考查点主要是其基本含义和用法,尤其是must表示推测的用法考查较多。

权威预测

近年来陕西中考对情态动词的单纯考查较少,经常是结合上下文语境和其他知识点一同考查。预计2014年陕西中考对情态动词的考查以推测可能性、请求允许等为主;以单项选择或短文填空的形式予以考查。

★中考命题导航

★考点一:can,may,must的用法

Can——表示能力

e.g.

He

can

speak

Chinese.

表示客观可能性

e.g.

Man

cannot

live

without

air.

表示许可

e.g.

Can

I

borrow

your

book?

表示猜测

e.g.

Can

it

be

true?

May——表示允许

e.g.

May

I

come

in?

表示可能性

e.g.

He

may

know

it.

Must——表示必须

e.g.

Must

I

go

now?

表示猜测

e.g.

You

must

be

a

teacher.

表示绝对不允许

e.g.

You

mustn’t

smoke.

★考点二——不同情态动词的否定意义不同

Can’t——不会,不能

e.g.

I

can’t

play

basketball.

We

can’t

do

it

now

because

it

is

too

dark.

不可能

e.g.

He

can’t

be

ill.

He

is

playing

computer

games

at

home.

Mustn’t——不允许,不可以

e.g.

He

mustn’t

leave

his

room.

Needn’t——不必

e.g.

You

needn’t

call

me

back.

★考点三——含有情态动词的疑问句的回答(常常出现在单选题中,有情境呈现,然后选择相应的答语)

May引出的疑问句的回答——

肯定

Yes,you

may./

Yes,of

course.

/

Yes,certainly.

/

Sure

否定

No,you

mustn’t./

No,you

can’t.

must引出的疑问句的回答——

肯定

Yes,you

must.

否定

No,you

needn’t./

No,you

don’t

have

to.

★考点四:

情态动词的被动语态

含有情态动词的被动语态的结构为:情态动词+

be

+

done

(动词的过去分词)。做题时要兼顾情态动词和被动语态这两个方面。

★中考链接

1.——Must

I

finish

my

homework

at

school?

——No,you

.

You

can

do

it

at

home.

A.

can’t

B.

mustn’t

C.

needn’t

D.

won’t

2.

——Mum,must

I

stay

there

the

whole

day?

——No,you

.You

come

back

after

lunch,if

you

like.

A.

mustn’t;

can

B.

needn’t;

must

C.

needn’t;

may

3.

——

Shall

I

tell

Jim

the

good

news?

——

No,you

.

I’ve

told

him

already.

A.

wouldn’t

B.

needn’t

C.

shouldn’t

D.

mustn’t

4.

——

Look!

A

book

is

on

the

floor.

Whose

is

it?

——

It

be

Rick’s.

It

has

his

name

on

it.

A.

mustn’t

B.

can’t

C.

must

D.

need

5.

——

Susan

s

parents

have

bought

a

large

house

with

a

swimming

pool.

——It

____be

very

expensive.

(2003上海)

A.

must

B.

can

C.

mustn

t

D.

can

t

6.

This

book____Lucy

s.

Look!

Her

name

is

on

the

book

cover.

A.

must

be

B.

may

be

C.

can

t

be

D.

mustn

t

be

7.

——Can

you

go

swimming

with

us

this

afternoon?

——Sorry,I

can

t.

I_____take

care

of

my

little

sister

at

home

because

my

mother

is

ill.

A.

can

B.

may

C.

would

D.

have

to

8.

——Could

I

look

at

your

pictures?

——Yes,of

course

you________.

A.

could

B.

can

C.

will

D.

might

9.________she

ride

when

she

was

three

years

old?

A.

Can

B.

Could

C.

Need

D.

May

10.——Anyone

who

sings

well

can

the

activity

in

our

school.

A.

take

part

in

B.

take

off

C.

take

out

D.

take

care

of

-

5

-

We

must

accept

finite

disappointment,but

we

must

never

lose

infinite

hope.

--

Mattin

Luther

King

我们必须接受失望,因为它是有限的,但千万不可失去希望,因为它是无穷的。

--

马丁

·

路德

·

篇3:初中英语代词情态动词总结及练习题

初中英语代词情态动词总结及练习题 本文关键词:情态,代词,练习题,动词,初中英语

初中英语代词情态动词总结及练习题 本文简介:初中英语代词情态动词总结及练习题情态动词专题:情态动词(一)情态动词的定义情态动词表示说话人对某一动作或状态的态度。(二)情态动词的特点1)有一定词义;2)不受主语人称和数的变化影响;3)与主要动词的原形(或称不带to的不定式)一起构成谓语(除oughtto作固定词组看待)。(三)情态动词的分类和意

初中英语代词情态动词总结及练习题 本文内容:

初中英语代词情态动词总结及练习题

情态动词

专题:情态动词

(一)情态动词的定义

情态动词表示说话人对某一动作或状态的态度。

(二)情态动词的特点

1)有一定词义;2)不受主语人称和数的变化影响;3)与主要动词的原形(或称不带to的不定式)一起构成谓语(除ought

to作固定词组看待)。

(三)情态动词的分类和意义

意义

情态动词

(四)情态动词的基本用法

1.

can

(could)

1)表示能力,could主要指过去时间。

Two

eyes

can

see

more

than

one.

两只眼比一只眼看得清。

Could

the

girl

read

before

she

went

to

school?

这女孩上学前能识字吗?

2)表示可能(理论上或是逻辑判断上)。

The

temperature

can

fall

to

–60℃,that

is

60℃

below

freezing.

气温可降至—60℃,也就是零下60℃。

He

can’t

(couldn’t)

have

enough

money

for

a

new

car.

他不可能有足够的钱买新车。

You

mustn

t

smoke

while

you

re

walking

around

in

the

wood.

You

could

start

a

fire.

在林子里走时勿吸烟,那样可能会引起火灾。

3)表示允许。

Can

I

have

a

look

at

your

new

pen?

我可以看一看你的新钢笔吗?

He

asked

whether

he

could

take

the

book

out

of

the

reading-room.

他问他可不可以把书带出阅览室。

4)表惊异、怀疑、不相信等态度。主要用于否定句、疑问句或感叹句中。

Where

can

(could)

they

have

gone

to?

他们会去哪儿了呢?

He

can’t

(couldn’t)

be

over

sixty.

他不可能超过六十岁。

How

can

you

be

so

careless?

你怎么这么粗心?

5)比较委婉客气地提出问题或陈述看法。

Can

(Could)

you

lend

me

a

hand?

帮我一把好吗?

I’m

afraid

we

couldn’t

give

you

an

answer

today.

恐怕我们今天不能给你答复。

2.

may

(might)

1)表允许,might可以指过去时间,也可指现在时间,语气更委婉。

You

may

take

whatever

you

like.

你喜欢什么就拿什么。

He

told

me

that

I

might

smoke

in

the

room.

他告诉我可以在房间里抽烟。

May

(Might)

I

ask

for

a

photo

of

your

baby?

我可以要一张你宝宝的照片吗?

在回答以may引起的问句时,多避免用这个词,而用其它方式,如Yes,please.

/

Certainly.

/

Please

don’t

./

You’d

better

not.

/

No,you

mustn’t.等,以免显得太严峻或不客气。

2)表可能(事实上)。可以指过去时间,也可以指现在时间,但语气更加不肯定。

He

may

be

at

home.

他可能在家。

She

may

not

know

about

it.

她可能不知道这件事。

He

was

afraid

they

might

not

agree

with

him.

他担心他们可能不同意他的意见。

They

might

be

having

a

meeting,but

I’m

not

sure.

他们有可能在开会,不过我不肯定。

3.

must

1)表示义务。意为“必须”(主观意志)。

We

must

do

everything

step

by

step.

我们一切都必须循序渐进地做。

You

mustn’t

talk

to

her

like

that.

你不可能那样对她说话。

--Must

we

hand

in

our

exercise—books

now?

我们现在就要交练习本吗?

--No,you

needn’t.

/

No,you

don’t

have

to.

不必。(这种情况下,一般不用mustn’t)

2)表示揣测。意为“想必、准是、一定”等,只用于肯定句。

He

must

be

ill.

He

looks

so

pale.

他准是病了。他的脸色苍白。

She’s

wearing

a

diamond

necklace.

She

must

have

a

lot

of

money.

她戴着钻石项链,一定很有钱。

4.

shall

1)表征询意见,用于第一、第三人称疑问句。

Shall

I

get

you

some

tea?

我给你点茶好吗?

Shall

the

boy

wait

outside?

让那男孩在外面等吗?

What

shall

we

do

this

evening?

我们今晚做什么?

2)表说话人的意愿,有“命令、允诺、警告、决心”等意思,用于第二、第三人称陈述句。

You

shall

do

as

I

say.

按我说的做。(命令)

You

shall

have

my

answer

tomorrow.

你明天可以得到我的答复。(允诺)

He

shall

be

sorry

for

it

one

day,I

tell

you.

有一天他会后悔的,我告诉你。(警告)

Nothing

shall

stop

us

from

carrying

out

the

plan.

什么也不能阻止我们执行这项计划。(决心)

5.

will

1)表意愿,用于各种人称陈述句。

I

will

do

anything

for

you.

我愿为你做任何事。

None

is

so

blind

as

those

who

won’t

see.

不愿看的人眼最瞎。

If

you

will

read

the

book,I’ll

lend

it

to

you.

如果你愿意读这本书,我会把它借给你。

2)表请求,用于疑问句。

Will

you

close

the

window?

It’s

a

bit

cold.

请你把窗户关上好吗?有点冷。

Won’t

you

drink

some

more

coffee?

再来一点咖啡好吗?

3)表示某种倾向或习惯性动作。

Fish

will

die

out

of

water.

鱼离开水就不能活。

The

door

won’t

open.

这门打不开。

The

boy

will

sit

there

hour

after

hour

looking

at

the

traffic

go

by.

那男孩常常坐在那里好几个钟点,看着车辆行人通过。

6.

should

1)表义务。意为“应该”(某件事宜于做),用于各种人称。

You

should

be

polite

to

your

teachers.

你对老师应该有礼貌。

You

shouldn’t

waste

any

time.

你不应该浪费时间。

2)表推测,意为“想必一定、照说应该、估计”等。

The

film

should

be

very

good

as

it

is

starring

first-class

actors.

这部新电影是一流演员主演的,估计拍得很好。

They

should

be

home

by

now.

照说他们现在应当已经到家了。

7.would

1)表意愿。

They

would

not

let

him

in

because

he

was

poorly

dressed.

他们不让他进去因为他衣着破旧。

I

said

I

would

do

anything

for

you.

我说过我愿意为你做任何事。

2)表委婉地提出请求、建议或看法。

Would

you

like

another

glass

of

beer?

再来杯啤酒好吗?

Would

you

mind

cleaning

the

window?

请把窗户擦一下好吗?

They

wouldn’t

have

anything

against

it.

他们不会有什么反对意见。

3)表过去反复发生的动作或过去的一种倾向。

Every

time

she

was

in

trouble,she

would

go

to

him

for

help.

她每遇到麻烦都会向她求助。他告诉我盒子打不开了。

8.

ought

to

1)表义务,意为“应该”(因责任、义务等该做),口气比should稍重。

You

are

his

father.

You

ought

to

take

care

of

him.

你是他父亲,应当管他。

You

oughtn’t

to

smoke

so

much.

你不应该抽这么多烟。

2)表推测,暗含很大的可能,语气较弱。

Han

Mei

ought

to

know

his

telephone

number.

韩梅该知道他的电话号码。

There’s

a

fine

sunset;

it

ought

to

be

a

fine

day

tomorrow.

今天有晚霞,明天应该是个好天。

9.

used

to

表示过去的习惯动作或状态,现在不复发生或存在。疑问式和否定式有两种。

He

used

to

live

in

the

countryside,but

now

he

lives

in

the

city.他过去住在乡下,现在住在城里。

There

used

to

be

a

building

at

the

street

corner,but

it

has

been

pulled

down.

街道拐角处过去有座楼房,现在拆了。

I

usedn’t

(didn’t

use)

to

smoke.

我过去不抽烟。

Used

you

(Did

you

use)

to

go

to

school

on

foot?

你过去常步行去学校吗?

(一)need和dare的用法

need和dare既可用作情态动词,也可用作实义动词。用作情态动词时,主要用于否定句和疑问句。用作实义动词时,可用于各种句式。

1.用作情态动词

--Need

I

come?

--Yes,you

must.

--我需要来吗?

--需要。

You

needn’t

telephone

him

now.

你现在不必打电话给他。

I

don’t

think

you

need

worry.

我想你不必发愁。

She

dare

not

go

out

alone

at

night.

她晚上不敢一个人出去。

How

dare

you

say

I’m

unfair?

你竟敢说我不公平?

Not

one

of

them

dared

mention

this.

他们谁也不敢提这件事。

2.用作实义动词

You

don’t

need

to

do

it

yourself.

你不必亲自做这件事。

We

need

to

tell

them

the

news.

我们需要把这消息告诉他们。

The

table

needs

painting

(to

be

painted.).

桌子需要油漆一下。

We

should

dare

to

give

our

own

opinion.

我们要敢于提出自己的观点。

He

did

not

dare

(to)

look

up.

他不敢抬头看。

I

dare

day

he’ll

come

again.

我想他会再来的。

(I

dare

say…为固定习语)

(二)情态动词后跟完成式和进行式的用法

1.情态动词后跟完成式,表“应当已经……”,“想必已经……”,“本来可以……”等意。

I

should

have

finished

the

work

earlier.

我应当早一点完成这项工作的。

He

isn’t

here.

He

must

have

missed

the

train.

他还未到,一定是没赶上火车。

Where

can

(could)

he

have

gone?

他能到那里去了呢?

You

may

(might)

have

read

about

it.

你可能在报上已经读到这件事了。

You

could

(might)

have

been

more

careful.

你本来可以更细心的。

He

needn’t

have

worried

about

it.

他本不必为此事担心。

There

was

a

lot

of

fun

at

yesterday

s

party.

You

ought

to

have

come,but

why

didn

t

you?

昨天的聚会非常有意思。你本应该来,为何不来呢?

2.

情态动词后跟进行式,表示“想必正在……”,“可能正在……”,“应当正在”等意。

It’s

twelve

o’clock.

They

must

be

having

lunch.

现在是十二点。他们一定正在吃饭。

They

may

be

discussing

this

problem.

他们可能正在论讨这个问题。

He

can’t

be

telling

the

truth.

他说的不可能是真话。

She

shouldn’t

be

working

like

that.

She’s

still

so

weak.

她不应当那样干,她身体仍那么虚。

(三)几组词的辨异

1.

can

和be

able

to

1)情态动词can只有两种时态形式,现在式can和过去式could,而be

able

to有多种时态形式。

Mary

can

play

the

piano.

She

has

been

able

to

play

it

since

she

was

5.

玛丽会弹钢琴。她五岁起就会弹了。

2)用在过去时中,could经常表示能够做某事,事实上不一定去做,而was∕were

able

to则表示“过去做成了某事”。在否定句中两者可通用。

He

couldm

across

the

English

Channel.

But

he

didn

t

feel

like

it

that

day.

他能游过英吉利海峡,但那天他不想游。

Yesterday

I

was

able

to

get

home

before

the

heavy

rain.

昨天我在下大雨前赶到了家里。

2.

must和

have

to

must表示主观意志,而have

to表示由于客观因素不得不做某事。must没有过去式,除在间接引语中可用于表示过去时间,在直接引语中表示过去时间应该用had

to代替。

I

told

her

that

she

must

give

up

smoking.

我叫她必须戒烟。

We

had

to

get

everything

ready

that

night.

我们那晚得把一切准备就绪。

3.

would和used

to

1)used

to表示过去与现在或过去某时与后来的情况有不同,而would只表过去的情况。

People

used

to

think

that

the

earth

was

flat.

过去人们认为地球是平的。(现在人们不这么认为。)

She

would

go

out

for

a

walk

in

the

morning

when

she

was

in

the

country.

在乡下时,她总是在早晨去散会儿步。(可能现在仍有散步的习惯。)

2)used

to可表示过去的习惯动作和经常的情况,而would只表示过去的习惯动作。

He

used

to

∕would

smoke

while

writing.

过去他写东西时常抽烟。

She

used

to

be

fat.

她过去很胖。

1.

I

__________

you,because

I

thought

I

must

be

wrong.

A.

dare

not

ask

B.

dare

not

to

ask

C.

dare

not

asking

D.

dare

to

not

ask

2.

There

__________

some

flowers

in

the

garden.

A.

were

used

to

be

B.

used

to

be

C.

uses

to

be

D.

used

to

be

having

3.

“__________

I

take

it

out?““I

m

sorry,you

__________.“A.

Could

.couldn

t

B.

Might.might

not

C.

Could.can

D.

May.can

t

4.

You

were

stupid

to

climb

the

tree.

You

__________

hurt

yourself.

A.

may

B.

might

C.

will

D.

might

have

5.

You

__________

those

letters.

Why

didn

t

you

?

A.

should

post

B.

should

have

posted

C.

must

have

posted

D.

ought

to

post.

6.

All

the

lights

are

on,the

Smiths

__________

up.

A.

must

get

B.

is

getting

C.

must

be

getting

D.

would

get

7.

He

__________

lead

a

horse

to

the

water

but

he

__________

not

make

it

drink.

A.

will.can

B.

may.can

C.

may.dares

D.

dare.can

8.

“Need

we

do

this

job

now?““Yes,__________.“A.

you

need

B.

you

should

C.

you

must

D.

you

can

9.

__________

to

have

lunch

with

us

today?

A.

Do

you

likes

B.

Would

you

like

C.

Will

you

liked

D.

Have

you

liked

10.

He

said

that

you

__________

watch

TV

all

the

evening

if

you

wished.

A.

may

B.

must

C.

can

D.

might

11.

-Is

John

coming

by

train?

--He

should,but

he

__________

not.

He

likes

driving

his

car.

A.

must

B.

can

C.

need

D.

may

12.

Peter

__________

come

with

us

tonight,but

he

isn

t

very

sure

yet.

A.

must

B.

can

C.

may

D.

will

13.

Michael

__________

be

a

policeman,for

he

s

much

too

short.

A.

needn

t

B.

can

t

C.

shouldn

t

D.

won

t

14.

I

thought

you

__________

be

hungry,so

I

have

brought

you

some

cakes.

A.

may

B.

might

C.

can

D.

could

15.

I

wonder

how

he

__________

that

to

the

teacher.

A.

dare

to

say

B.

dare

saying

C.

not

dare

say

D.

dared

say

16.

Come

on!

We

__________

hurry

because

there

isn

t

much

time

left.

A.

may

B.

must

C.

can

D.

need

17.

Amy

did

best

in

the

English

test.

She

__________

hard

last

week.

A.

must

have

working

B.

should

have

worked

C.

should

work

D.

must

work

18.

The

fire

spread

through

the

hotel

very

quickly

but

everyone

__________

get

out.

A.

had

to

B.

would

C.

could

D.

was

able

to

19.

---I

stayed

at

a

hotel

while

in

New

York.

---Oh,did

you?

You

__________

with

Barbara.

A.

could

have

stayed

B.

could

stay

C.

would

stay

D.

must

have

stayed

20.

It

s

nearly

seven

o

clock.

Jack

__________

be

here

at

any

moment.

A.

must

B.

need

C.

should

D.

can

答案:

1.A2.B3.D4.D5.B6.C7.B8.C9.B10.D11.D12.C13.B14.B15.D16.B17.A18.D19.A20.C

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